Cardiac Disease

1) Heart Attack (Acute Myocardial Ischemia) :-

Sudden decrease in blood supply to Cardiac muscle & its sequences are collectively known as ‘Heart Attack’. It can be (STEMI, NSTEMI, UA)

Most common presenting symptom of Heart attack is sudden onset chest pain which is generally not relieved by common medicines.

Risk factors of Heart Attack
➢ Age (Male >50, Female >60)
➢ Male >>Female
➢ Smoking
➢ Alcohol
➢ DM
➢ HTN
➢ Cholesterol
➢ Stressful lifestyle
➢ Obesity
➢ Chronic Kidney disease

Evaluation of Any Chest Pain :-

Any patient with risk factor it having chest pain should be evaluated at physician clinic with ECG, Cardiac Enzymes etc.

Treatment :-

❖ Admit under ICU
❖ Primary PCI / Thrombolysis
❖ Prevention of development of complication.
❖ Treatment of complication.

Complications :-

❖ Arrythmias
❖ Heart failure
❖ Sudden Cardiac death
❖ Rupture of heart (Valves)

2)Heart Failure :-

Decrease in Cardiac function leads to Breathlessness on exertion, pedal, edema, orthopnea.

Causes (Most Common)

❖ Ischemic (IHD) – CAD
❖ Valvular disease
❖ Cardiomyopathy

Precaution:-

❖ Salt restriction
❖ Daily Medication
❖ Prevention from infection
❖ Vaccination againsts respi infections

Such as pneumococcal, Influenza.